The Autonomous Communities may develop the aforementioned health care information system in their respective competences. Prevention Service health care personnel shall carry out epidemiological surveillance, and shall take action for the maintenance of the Health Care Information System for Occupational Health in its particular field. Palabras clave: Trastornos de Personalidad.
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Relaciones Interpersonales. Our research shows a statistically significant relationship between diagnosis of PD and indicators of social climate disruption such as aggressive interpersonal conduct or compulsive demand for psychoactive drugs in medical consultations. PD is one of the most common mental disorders in prison, and requires special attention from health services, while management of the disorder is a tremendously complex issue in the prison context.
El estudio PreCa. Grupo de trabajo PreCa. Palabras Clave: salud mental, Epidemiologia, Prisiones, Metodologia Translation - English An overview of the methodology for studying mental disorders in the prison population. The PreCa study. The PreCa working group Abstract The PreCa, or Prevalencias de trastornos mentales en carceles project Prevalence of mental disorders in prisons is the largest multi-centre study based on individual interviews about mental health ever carried out in the Spanish prison population.
This article gives a detailed description of the methodology employed and the work done to date prior to the publication of the first results. The PreCa study is based on the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders ESEMeD , an extensive epidemiological study that is considered to be the European equivalent of the classic American ECA study, which is regarded as an international benchmark for the study of the epidemiology of mental disorders in the general population.
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Specific details are given on how this type of study may be carried out in the prison environment. Indique, en su caso, los sistemas de control de riesgo relacionado con las actividades desarrolladas por la entidad. En la operativa en los mercados financieros este riesgo se produce, entre otras situaciones, cuando una entidad presta dinero, invierte en activos financieros o entra en operaciones bilaterales de derivados financieros con una contraparte. El VaR se calcula diariamente. Describe, if applicable, the risk control systems for the activities of each entity.
The current economic situation has highlighted the importance of global risk control and management in financial institutions. One of the main objectives of Caixa Penedes is to develop and monitor policies, processes and tools for the proper management of the potential risks inherent in financial dealings. By using a prudent and balanced risk policy, the Bank ensures maintenance of adequate levels of solvency is maintained, compliance with authorised risk levels, and a balance between assumed risk and obtained profit.
Caixa Penedes is also aware that excellence in risk management must be a dynamic process of constant improvement, and it has made great advances in that area. Examples of this are the efforts to strengthen credit risk management in all areas, Granting, Monitoring and Recovery and the increase in resources for Global Risk Management and Control. More specifically, the Bank has measurement, monitoring and control systems for all the types of risk to which financial dealings are subject: credit, counterpart, market, operational, interest rates, and liquidity.
Credit Risk: Credit risk is understood as meaning any possible loss from a partial or total default in the obligations of a credit user.
Analysis and sanctions: for granting operations, the Entity has an admissions circuit and a system of delegation of powers with which any organisation that is in a hierarchically higher position in the circuit has greater powers of sanction. The delegation of powers is based on two elements: Page 39 i The fixing of maximum amounts that an organisation may sanction for a client or group, depending on the type of operation and the nature of the risk. The powers are individual, with the exception of the higher hierarchical body, which functions under joint powers due to the large amounts involved in the operations to be sanctioned.
The Company is working on advances geared towards improving, reviewing and implanting tools for credit rating in line with the recommendations of the New Basle Capital Accord NBCA and extending them to the entire portfolio so as to optimise the granting and monitoring of operations. The Bank also has an electronic filing application, which centralises all the information from the different phases of the granting process, thereby automating data retrieval and improving the capacity of each body to sanction operations, as well as creating flexibility in parameter setting for granting policies in the Company.
This tool, now in place in all areas, makes the decision making process easier by significantly reducing response time to clients thanks to a reduction in administrative procedures. Monitoring: the Company has several Risk Monitoring units for different client segments, which in accordance with best practice in the financial sector, is totally independent of granting functions, and whose objective is to anticipate and prevent the potential deterioration of borrower credit quality, both individually as a given financial sector, and the credit portfolio as a whole, to minimise the likelihood of losses.
The three main activities of this Department are: i Individualised analysis of the financial groups in the strongest positions, ii Monitoring of clients with internal incidents. This activity uses an IT alarm support tool by which information is transmitted to the office about incidents which, when taken together, can achieve rapid regularisation of any position, or in other situations speed up decision making when action is required.
At the same time the tool automatically integrates the communication circuit for parallel communication of these incidents to clients for regularisation. This is a solution that enables processing of necessary information to locate and analyse any type of imbalance and it also integrates functions that enable the creation and monitoring of any files that might be needed.
The management is an integrated process that takes into consideration the overall position of each client, as well as their specific characteristics. This is a solution that enables integration of all the participants in recovery management offices, agencies, pre-litigation, litigation, internal and external lawyers, etc. External agents can now use the same platform to manage assigned files and participate in the same management circuit and also obtain the information in real time.
To definitively support different organisations in their roles, the Bank has decided to follow the recommendations of the NBCA and make greater advances in promoting tools and resources for risk management at every stage: Granting, Monitoring and Recoveries. Counterpart Risk: Counterpart credit risk, commonly known as counterpart risk, is the risk that the counterparts might not comply with their obligations to the entity. In financial market operations this risk occurs, amongst other situations, when an entity lends money, invests in financial assets, or enters into bilateral relationships with a counterpart of derivative instruments.
The Assets and Liabilities Committee COAP is the body responsible for assessing assumed risks and for the design of counterpart risk management strategies for the Company. The Company has also made important advances in reaching agreements for mitigating counterpart risks, so that practically for all counterparts there are compensation and collateralisation agreements.
Market Risk: Market risk is understood as meaning the possibility of adverse variations in financial assets and liabilities and off balance sheet operations negatively affecting the financial net worth of the Company. With the aim of measuring the risk exposure of market variables, the Market Risk Control Department carries out a series of control analyses.
Market risk is basically measured in terms of Value at Risk. This measurement represents an estimate of the maximum potential loss that could occur with a determined degree of statistical reliability in a given time horizon. The VaR is calculated daily. The COAP is the body responsible for assessing assumed risks and the design of investment criteria and strategies for market risk management in the Company.
Although implicit attention to these risks has always been paid, to enable the Company to make greater advances in systematically identifying, assessing, mitigating and managing risk, it has joined the Global Risk Control Sectorial Project coordinated by the Spanish Confederation of Savings Banks, thereby adopting the best practices and principles in operational risk management taken from the Basle Committee documents.
Qualitative and quantitative tools have been developed to measure the frequency and impact of operational risk events and improve the control and coverage in areas of greatest exposure. By means of these tools qualitative risk maps, action plans, loss data bases, and risk indicators we can tackle operational risk in the areas required by the Basle Agreement.
In this area, there are moves to define, formalise, and extend the use of self-assessments that make it possible to identify and classify operational risks and prioritise action plans with measures to reduce them. A loss data base has been created, that will make it possible to quantify equity consumption deriving from this type of risk. Work will be done on automating data retrieval for these events from the operational applications themselves.
Operational risk indicators have also been defined as part of the Spanish Confederation of Savings Banks project, such as alert systems for defined loss events.
This will make it possible to automate regulatory capital calculation procedures through business lines, as established in the Basle II standards. Exposure of the Company to interest rate risk is analysed in three ways: i Gap analysis, as a measure of static risk. To measure this type of risk the following financial assets and liabilities are considered: - Financial assets: cash assets, capitals market, and other assets - Financial liabilities: cash liabilities, debt capital and other liabilities.
The COAP is the body responsible for assessing the assumed risk, and the design of the Company strategies for interest rate risk. For this reason the risk measurements of interest rate risk are complemented by specific reports when COAP members consider it necessary to effectively control risks of this type. Liquidity Risk: Liquidity risk is the possible difficulty in having liquid funds available, or to gain access to them, in sufficient cost and quantity to confront Company payment obligations at any time.
To be able to know at any time what the exposure level of the Company is to liquidity risk, as well as any progress and future forecasts, different reports are prepared and analysed that make it possible to: - Know what the assets or liquid funds and the commitments or payment obligations are that the Company must face at a certain date. The COAP is the body responsible for assessing the assumed risk and design of the Company strategies for liquidity risk. Relate the risks covered by the system, along with a justification of the suitability of the risk control system profile adopted for the entity, bearing in mind the equity structure.
The main risks for the Bank in its traditional banking activity as well as its financial activity in the markets are basically the ones defined in the above section: credit, counterpart, market, operational, interest rate and liquidity risk. Risk management must make it possible to obtain adequate profitability within the limits of authorised risk.
Likewise, risk management sets out to minimise impact on the financial and net situation, from adverse movement of external variables, such as changes in the financial markets or interest rates.enter site
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As well as the risk control and management structure, the Company takes the necessary action to maintain sufficient equity volume at all times to cover positional risks, as well as to cover any future contingencies. All this in accordance with the current Bank of Spain regulations concerning equity, which involve the adaptation of the NBCA calculations. Within the NBCA II framework, the Company has drawn up a Capital Self Assessment Report for this financial year, planning future needs from equity with the aim of ensuring that these resources will be sufficient to hold to the solvency objectives in the mid term.
Uncontemplated risks in Basle I have also been studied, thereby establishing the cost use of equity.
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Show if there is any commission or other governing body responsible for establishing and supervising these control functions and describe in detail what they do. I love translation. It's as simple as that. I came to Spain in to work as a teacher and had no idea of what translation could be about. In I started to do my first translation jobs, occasional pieces for friends, students, etc. Thanks to those small favours I discovered a game that has never ceased to fascinate, reward and entertain me. When I later discovered that I could even make a living out of it, I felt my life was all the richer.
Since then I have worked in a lot of different fields, some more enriching than others, and seem to be settling into areas that I thought I would never touch, but that sense of adventure and discovery has never left me and never will. My lack of formal academic training in translation has sometimes left me feeling handicapped in the market, but then I think of the three years I spent in archeology where experience was always more highly valued than a degree, because if you don't get your hands dirty on a dig, you never really know what to look for.